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托福综合写作的"读"要点

2017-07-13 14:26:04 编辑:无 浏览:(351次)

综合写作的读是综合写作的基础。综合写作的读不仅阅读文章,而且还包括记阅读笔记,从而预测听力内容。

要领一:

综合写作的阅读文章通常是4段。总分结构----首段+三段主体段。

分析TPO6综合写作阅读文章

Communal online encyclopedias represent one of the latest resources to be found on the Internet. They are in many respects like traditional printed encyciopedias, however, is that any internet user can contribute a new article or make an editorial change in an existing one. As a result, the encyclopedia is authored by the whole community of Internet users. The idea might sound attractive, but the communal online encyclopedias have several important problems that make them much less valuable than traditional, printed encyclopedias

First, contributors to a communal online encyclopedia often lack academic credentials, thereby making their contributioins partially informed at best and downright inaccurate in many cases. Traditional encyclopedias are written by trained experts who adhere to standards of academic

rigor that nonspecialists cannot really achieve.

Second, even if the original entry in the online encyclopedia is correct, the communal nature of these online encyclopedias gives unscrupulous users and vandals or hackers the opportunity to fabricate, delete, and corrupt information in the encyclopedia. Once changes have been made to the original text, an unsuspecting user cannot tell the entry has been tampered with. None of this is possible with a traditional encyclopedia.

Third, the communal encyclopedias focus too frequently, and in too great a depth, on trivial and popular topics, which created a false impression of what is important and what is not. A child doing research for a school project may discover that a major historical event receives as much attention in an online encyclopedia as, say, a single long-running television program. The traditional encyclopedia provides a considered view of what topics to include or exclude and contains a sense of proportion that online "democratic" communal encyclopedias do not.

1.首段的阅读

明确文章的谈论对象,"不要害怕"有些人不认识谈论对象,如: encyclopedia, Terreya taxifolia, Edmonotosaurus等。

主要不影响阅读内容的理解,并不需要纠结谈论对象的含义的百分之百的精确把握。在很多情况下,文章第一段会对象进行解释。

比如TPO6综合写作阅读文章第一段的时候,有一句话对encyclopedia做了解释,:They are in many aspects like traditional printed encyclopedias, collections of articles on various subjects.

Edmonotosaurus?

但当学生生读完Paleontologists have proposed that one of the most common North Slope dinosaurs, the elephant-sized edmontosaur  (Edmontosaurus), survived the  winter  by migrating  south  to  more  hospitable regions.

这句话之后 ,马上就能知道它是一种和大象形状类似的恐龙 。

抓住文章的观点,文章的第一段的观点都会在第一段中出现,往往第一段的最后一句话。

TPO6综合写作阅读文章第一段的最后一句话:

but the communal online encyclopedias have several important problems that make them much less valuable than traditional, printed encyclopedias

2,主体段的阅读

1、主体段的把握需要把握各段首句

TPO6

分论点一 contributors to a communal online encyclopedia often lack academic credentials

分论点二 fabricate, delete, and corrupt information in the encyclopedia

分论点三 the communal encyclopedias focus on trivial and popular topics

听力不仅是对阅读文章观点和分论点的反驳,更是对阅读文章中论据和细节的反驳。需要学生重视在主体段的阅读中对论据和细节。

1)论据。一般而言,每段主体段都会有两个论据来支撑起分论点。

分论点一 lack academic credentials。

making their contributions partially informed at best and downright inaccurate in many cases

Traditional encyclopedias are written by trained experts who adhere to standards of academic

rigor that nonspecialists cannot really achieve.

分论点二fabricate, delete, and corrupt information in the encyclopedia

unscrupulous users and vandals or hackers

an unsuspecting user cannot tell the entry has been tampered with

分论点三 focus on trivial and popular topics

created a false impression of what is important and what is not

The traditional encyclopedia provides a considered view of what topics to include or exclude

2)细节。阅读文章中的细节包括:举例、数字、原因、比较、反复出现的单词(生词,专有名词)等。

练习

A recent study reveals that people especially young people are reading far less literature - novels, plays, and poems - than they used to. This is troubling because the trend has unfortunate effects for the reading public, for culture in general, and for the future of literature itself.

While there has been a decline in book reading generally, the decline has been especially sharp for literature. This is unfortunate because nothing else provides the intellectual stimulation that literature does. Literature encourages us to exercise our imaginations, empathize with others, and expand our understanding of language. So, by reading less literature, the reading public is missing out on important benefits.

Unfortunately, missing out on the benefits of literature is not the only problem. What are people reading instead? Consider the prevalence of self-help books on lists of best seller. These are usually superficial poorly written, and intellectually undemanding. Additionally, instead of sitting down with a challenging novel, many persons are now more likely to turn on the television, watch a music video, or read a Web page. Clearly, diverting time previously spent in reading literature to trivial forms of entertainment has lowered the level of culture in general.

The trend of reading less literature is all the more regrettable because it is taking place during a period when good literature is being written. There are many talented writers today, but they lack an audience. This fact is bound to lead publishers to invest less in literature and so support fewer serious writers. Thus, the writing as well as the reading of literature is likely to decline because of the poor standards of today's readers。

观点

分论点

论据

细节

2.记阅读笔记

(1)建议用一张草稿纸来为托福写作部分记笔记。

将草稿纸对折,阅读文章的时候把阅读笔记写在草稿纸的左侧:在听讲座录音的时候,把听讲座录音的时候,把听力笔记对应地写在草稿纸的右侧。

(2)将阅读文章的观点简短明了地写在左侧第一行

(3)概括阅读文章三个分论点的核心词且每个分论点之间留出足够的距离。

(4)时间充裕的条件下,把重要论据的核心词、细节补充至笔记中。

online:×less valuable记阅读笔记有很多所谓的 "原则" ,比如这里的

"习惯原则" 一一有些考生习惯用符号 ,如用× 来表示 " 不好" ,有些考生习惯用 文字 ,如将× 换成 " 有问题 " 或 " has many problems '' 。

时间充裕的话,补充 " traditional :好" ,明确阅 读文章的比较对象 。

1. online lack  学术性阅读笔记使用英文还是中文 ?

一 online: inaccurate

"方便原则" 是记阅读笔记的又一原则 。如在这 里,对大多数考生来说 ,写 "学术性"肯定比写 credentials方便。

一 traditional : experts

时间充裕话 ,可以补充academic rigor等细节。

2.delete information

不需要将fabricate, delete, corrupt三个动词都写 上,阅读笔记同时要遵循 " 简洁原则" ,因为阅 读文章的时间非常有限 。

--hackers

不需要讲unscrupulous  users, vandals , hackers

-- traditional : info 难改

记阅读笔记的第四个原则 ,即 H 还原原则 里的imformation缩写为 info既节约了时间,又易被还原为 information,并不影响理解 。但如若将 information改成in,当再次使用阅读笔记时 ,就 可能因为很难将in还原为 information而产生理解 上的障碍。因此,在记阅读笔记的过程中 ,应该 使用 " 易被还原" 的缩写

2.trivial and popular topics

-- importance: false impression

-- traditional : a considered view;

在时间充裕的条件 下,先补充论据   .再补充细节

TPO11综合写作阅读文章

阅读文章                  阅读笔记

3.预测听力内容

一边阅读文章或者记阅读笔记,一边对相应的听力内容进行预测。

"学霸" 对TP0 6综合写作昕力的预测

online:×less valuable因为讲座和阅读文章之间大多是 " 反驳型" 关系,所

以讲座的观点要么辩驳说网络百科全书是有 价值的, 要么强调传统百科全书也有很多的问题 。

1. online lack  学术性1. 网络百科全书具有学术 性 (或者传统百科全书也没

有学术性 〉。

一 online: inaccurate网络百科全书是准确的 (传统百科全书也是不准确的 ) 。

一 traditional : experts网络百科全书也由专家编篡 (传统百科全书并非都由 专家编篡) 。

2. delete  information2. 网络百科全书的信息并非可以被 轻易改变 ( 传统百

科全书的信息也会被改变 )。

- hackers网络百科全书通过一定的方法可以避免黑客的侵袭 。

一 traditional : info 难改传统百科全书的信息并非 "难以改变 " ( 网络百科全

书的信息一定可以通过某些特定的方 法得以保护〉。

3. trivial and popular topics3.  网络百科全书不仅关注琐碎的和流行的话题  ( 传统

百科全书也只关心琐碎的和流行的话题 ) 。

一 importance: false impression网络百科全书关注范围十分广泛  ,因此读者不会遇到

难以区分信息重要性的问题 (传统百科全书也会遇到 难以区分信息重要性的问题〉 。

一 traditional: a considered view; online

网络百科全书对所选话题也是经过思考的 (传统百科. 全书对所选话题 未必经过思考 〉 。

Tpo11阅读文章

阅读笔记                                                        听力预测

-read less 文学:x troubling                         人们并没有减少对文学的阅读或者文学读的少也是没有关系的

1.sharp decline in reading literature            1.读文学的数量并没有减少(读文学的数量减少,但是人们阅读很多其他形式的读物)

-interllectual stimulation                               很多其他形式的读物也可以启迪思维(读文学未必会启发思维)

-benefits                                                        读文学是否真的有那么多益处(其他形式的读物也可以有这么多益处)

2. not the only problem                               2.问题没有想的那么严重

-read self-help books                                     阅读DIY自助式图书很有益处

-lower the cultural level                                 不重要的娱乐形式不会降低文化水平

3. regrettable                                                3.我们不需要感到后悔

-writers lack an audience                               -不缺少读者

-poor readers' standards                               -读者的水平并不低